FIGURE 1: Basic scheme of selection in mutation breeding

FIGURE 2: Main steps of establishment of a hybrid variety in wheat

FIGURE 3: Development of allopolyploid (amphidiploid) hybrids, e.g. a wheat-rye hybrid (octoploid triticale)

FIGURE 4: Residue seed method of breeding, half-sib progeny selection or method of overstored seeds

FIGURE 5: Single-plant selection including testing of progeny in autogamous plants

FIGURE 6: Inheritance and segregation patterns in subsequent generations of flower colour from a cross of a red-flowered with a white-flowered plant, and with dominant inheritance of red flowers

FIGURE 7: Pedigree breeding (cross-combination breeding) in autogamous plants

FIGUR 8: Some diploid and allopolyploid species of the genus Brassica with agricultural  and breeding importance

FIGURE 9: Experimental field design of a Latin square considering four variants and four replications (4 blocks, 4 columns) and a Latin rectangle considering 10 variants

FIGURE 10: The phylogeny of wheat (Triticum ssp.)

FIGURE 11: Types of chromosome and/or centromere constrictions

FIGURE 12: The karyogram of diploid rye, Secale cereale L.

FIGURE 13: Pairing failure of meiotic chromosomes as interlocked configuration

FIGURE 14: Different types of trisomics in plants

FIGURE 15: A diagrammatic representation of different meiotic chromosome configurations observed in diakinesis and metaphase including the minimum chiasmata

FIGURE 16: Combination breeding by using the bulk method

FIGURE 17: A comparison of the genetic segregation patterns of sexually derived and doubled-haploid derived F2 progenies from F1 heterozygotes

FIGURE 18: Schematic interpretation of ‘dominance hypothesis’ considering inbred lines and F1 hybrid

FIGURE 19: Schematic drawing of topcross design including progeny testing for general combining ability

FIGURE 20: Schematic drawing of a recurrent selection design

FIGURE 21: Schematic drawing of a reciprocal recurrent selection design

FIGURE 22: Schematic drawing of hybrid seed production in maize

FIGURE 23: Schematic drawing of hybrid seed production after and utilisation of cytoplasmic male sterility

FIGURE 24: Schematic drawing of unequal crossing-over

FIGURE 25: Schematic drawing of embryo sac and pollen formation

FIGURE 26: Breeding scheme using doubled haploids

FIGURE 27: Schematic drawing of Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer

FIGURE 28: Different ways of asexual reproduction in plants

FIGURE 29: Hybrid seed production in allogamous rye

FIGURE 30: Designs of spreader nurseries

FIGURE 31: Basic crossing schemes in plant breeding

FIGURE 32: Schematic drawing of honeycomb and grid designs

FIGURE 33: Several types of hill plots

FIGURE 34: Basic shapes and types of spikes in wheat

FIGURE 35: Schematic drawing of sexual organs of a plant flower

FIGURE 36: Types of duplicated chromosome segments

FIGURE 37: Schematic drawing of aneuploid types in wheat and applicable to other diploids and polyploids

FIGURE 38: Estimation of heritability h2 based on selection advantage ‘R’, selection coefficient ‘S’ and selection intensity ’ i’

FIGURE 39: Schematic drawing of mass selection and single-plant selection

FIGURE 40: Schematic drawing of positive mass selection

FIGURE 41: Couple method of breeding in allogamous plants

FIGURE 42: A general breeding scheme called "variety machine" (modfied after N.F. JENSEN)

FIGURE 43a: Loding in hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (Gramineae)

FIGURE 43b: alfalfa - Luzerne f, Medicago sativa (Leguminosae)

FIGURE 44: Schematic drawing of presumed pedegree of sugarbeet (modified after SCHUKOWSKI 1950)

FIGURE 45: Hybrid seed production in rapeseed by strip cropping

FIGURE 46: Flower head of rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. napus)

FIGURE 47: (a) Scheme of hybrid seed production in rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. napus); strip cropping as ratio 2 : 1, and (B) scheme of line production by using cytoplasmatic male-sterile mutants

FIGURE 48: Adventitious root development from lower nodes in hexaploid wheat

FIGURE 49: azia cucumber - Aziagurke f, Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae)

FIGURE 50: asparagus pea - Spargelerbse f, Tetragonolobus purpureus syn Lotus tetragonolobus (Leguminosae)

FIGURE 51: salsify - Haferwurzel f, Tragopogon porrifolius (Compositae)

FIGURE 52: parsnip - Pastinake f, Pastinaca sativa (Umbelliferae)

FIGURE 53: May beet - Teltower Rübchen f, Brassica napus var. rapa (Cruciferae)

FIGURE 54: evening primrose - Rapontika f, Oenothera biennis (Oenotheraceae)

FIGURE 55: rampion - Rapunzelrübe f, Campanula rapunculus (Campanulaceae)

FIGURE 56: red beet - Salatrübe f, Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris convar. crassa var. conditiva (Chenopodiaceae)

FIGURE 57: skirret - Zuckerwurzel f, Sisum sisarum (Umbelliferae)

FIGURE 58: cardoon - Spanische Artischoke f, Cynara cardunculus (Compositae)

FIGURE 59: scurvy grass - Löffelkraut n, Cochlearia officinalis (Cruciferae)

FIGURE 60: amaranth - Amaranth m, Amaranthus lividis (Amaranthaceae)

FIGURE 61: ice plant - Eiskraut n, Mesembrianthemum crystallinum (Aizoaceae)

FIGURE 62: good king Henry - Guter Heinrich m, Chenopodium bonus-henricus (Chenopodiaceae)

FIGURE 63a: Malabar nightshade - Indischer Spinat m, Basella alba, B. rubra (Chenopodiaceae)

FIGURE 63b: orache - Spanischer Salat m, Atriplex hortensis (Chenopodiaceae)

FIGURE 64: sorrel - Gemüseampfer m, Rumex.acetosa var. hortensis (Polygonaceae)

FIGURE 65: Swiss chard - Mangold m, Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)

FIGURE 66: Welsh onion - Heckzwiebel f, Allium fistulosum (Alliaceae)

FIGURE 67: triticale - Triticale m, Triticale turgidocereale (2n = 6x = 42) (Gramineae)

FIGURE 68: cucumber - Gurke f, Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae)

FIGURE 69: ginger - Ingwer m, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae); adult plant, flowers, young sprouts, and root

FIGURE 70: Vitreous grains, characterizing slightly translucent kernels in durum wheat, Triticum durum (Gramineae)

FIGURE 71a: Flowering male organs (tassel) of maize, Zea mays (Gramineae)

FIGURE 72: Types of periclinal chimera

FIGURE 76: Schematic drawing of hybrid seed production in barley using the BBT system

FIGURE 77: Schematic drawing of nick translation reaction with unlabeled and labeled dNTP for in situ hybridization experiments

FIGURE 78: Schematic drawing of oligolabeling reaction with unlabeled and labeled dNTP for in situ hybridization experiments

FIGURE 79: Schematic drawing of end-labeling reaction with labeled dNTP for in situ hybridization experiments

FIGURE 80a: chayote - Chayote f, Sechium edule (Cucurbitaceae)

FIGURE 82: Breeding schemes for synthetic varieties using inbred lines (left) or clones

FIGURE 84: Schematic drawing of isolation and regeneration of protoplasts

FIGURE 85: Schematic drawing of haploid production by androgenesis (anther and pollen culture)

FIGURE 86: Schmatic drawing of RFLP analysis by using gel electrophoresis and SOUTHERN transfer technique

FIGURE 87: Schematic drawing of gene tagging by using transposons

FIGURE: 88: Molecular procedue of chromosome walking

FIGURE 89a: spikelet shape - Ährchenform f, Agropyron ssp. (Gramineae)

FIGURE 89b: spikelet shape - Ährchenform f, Elymus ssp. (Gramineae)